FOXSAT-HDR Dropbear SSH with keys

WARNING: This article relates to the dropbear package version 2012.55 and not the updated package 2012.55-1 that now includes the ability to login with keys. It is no longer necessary to use these instructions to modify the dropbear installation on your FOXSAT-HDR. The instructions on how to generate and distribute client keys are still valid.

I have just upgraded the functionality of my Humax FOXSAT-HDR with some custom firmware. The new firmware came with Telnet active but I prefer to use SSH with RSA or DSA keys. Dropbear is the installable package that provides SSH for the custom firmware but I couldn’t find any documentation with the firmware that explained how to get it working with client keys.

Following an evening of research and experimentation, I found a way of getting it to work. Ubuntu/Linux/BSD users can use this process to configure Dropbear on the FOXSAT-HDR to use SSH authorized_keys instead of passwords. I worked around the read-only file system by changing the root account home directory to /tmp.

Install Dropbear on your custom firmware FOXSAT-HDR using opkg or the web interface. Test that it works using a password. Dropbox appears to be configured to use only the root account. From my Ubuntu machine I login from a terminal session using:-

ssh root@foxsat-hdr

When you are happy it is working OK. Open another terminal session and create a DSA public key file on your Ubuntu PC. The file will be ~/.ssh/

cd .ssh
ssh-keygen -t dsa

Copy the key(s) to the FOXSAT-HDR. You may already have a public RSA key present in the .ssh folder.

scp id_*.pub root@foxsat-hdr:/tmp

If you are not already logged in to the FOXSAT-HDR via SSH, do so now to create the two authorized_keys files required.

cd /opt/etc
mkdir .ssh
chmod 700 .ssh
cd .ssh
cat /tmp/id_*.pub >> authorized_keys
chmod 600 authorized_keys
ln -s /opt/etc/.ssh/authorized_keys /opt/etc/.ssh/authorized_keys2

Create an init.d script to fix the keys on startup. The root account will have it’s home directory moved to /tmp so that the hidden key folder can be found in there. The ‘echo’ command line is quite long and ends in ‘fix’, it is not two lines.

echo -e "#!/bin/sh\n\nln -s /opt/etc/.ssh /tmp/.ssh">/opt/etc/init.d/S55sshpubkeyfix

chmod 755 /opt/etc/init.d/S55sshpubkeyfix

Now edit the password file using vi to change the root account home directory from ‘/’ to ‘/tmp’. If you don’t know how to use vi, read this first. Otherwise, here is a command list to refresh your memory.

cp /opt/etc/passwd /opt/etc/passwd.old
vi /opt/etc/passwd

When you have saved the file. Check it, then reboot if it is good.

cat /opt/etc/passwd

Your FOXSAT-HDR will reboot and you should be able to login using SSH. This time switch on debugging to check the authentication sequence during login. If it works, you will not have to use a password to establish a secure shell.

ssh -vv root@foxsat-hdr

Telnet can be deactivated using ‘Service Management’ in the web interface.

I have more than one SSH client

If you want to use SSH from another Ubuntu PC it is easy to copy its DSA client key to the FOXSAT-HDR now that the authorized_keys file has been created.

ssh-keygen -t dsa
ssh-copy-id root@foxsat-hdr


This could be incorporated into the Dropbear package if the maintainer emptied the authorized_keys file (zero length) before sealing the package file. Users would then only need to use ssh-keygen and ssh-copy-id to make use of the additional security.


Custom firmware for Humax FOXSAT-HDR

I have been using my Humax FOXSAT-HDR since I bought it new in 2009 and functionally it hasn’t changed much bar the addition of BBC and ITV catch-up TV services. I have always hoped that the manufacturer would issue a DLNA server upgrade to the firmware, but it never came. That is until today…

While searching the internet to find if the Freesat+ YouTube player was available for the FOXSAT-HDR, I found a custom firmware distribution that has been in development and use for some years that could be used to provide web access and DLNA services.

There is no dedicated website for the firmware but it appears the is the place to go for community support and the latest downloads.

The version that I downloaded and installed was v4.1.1 . It came in a RAR file that I decompressed into a folder on one of my Ubuntu machines. I copied the files to a 1.1GB USB stick formatted FAT32 as advised in the README but it wouldn’t boot the new firmware installer. I found another stick that was 985MB when formatted and it worked perfectly. The installation was exactly as described in the instructions and when the FOXSAT-HDR rebooted there was no visible change other than the firmware version being displayed on the front panel during boot up.

Pointing a web browser at the box, I continued to install the full web interface. When complete I could see that the DLNA server was an installable package but I couldn’t get the package list to update from the web interface. No problem, I telneted into the box and used the command line instead.

opkg update
opkg list
opkg install dropbear

I installed dropbear so that I could deactivate Telnet and use SSH instead. More on this later.

After installing dropbear via the command line the web interface tabs for ‘Installed’, ‘Available’ and ‘Upgrades’ worked but the main ‘Update package list from internet’ still doesn’t work from the web interface.

I am currently experimenting with MediaTomb uPNP to serve recordings to my son’s PS3 but I think I will try the TwonkyMedia 5 DLNA server as originally planned. Twonky charge 15 Euros for the licence activation but I guess it’s probably worth it.

If you wish to rollback to the original firmware, you will need an installable image of it. I found one that I could download v1.00.21 from here.

3 May 2015
I should have updated this a long time ago as I have since upgraded my Foxsat-HDR to v4.1.2 and then on to v4.1.3
I am really impressed with the current version. Everything works well as flashed and with the addition of some of my own custom modifications to get it working with my WDTV-Live box.

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